DNR is fishing for feedback on lake sturgeon plan

CHEBOYGAN CO. — The Department of Natural Resources is asking for anglers to weigh-in on the state’s lake sturgeon management plan.

The online survey is designed to help develop a lake sturgeon plan for Black Lake.  

The Lake Sturgeon Management Plan will focus on past and future management efforts in Cheboygan and Presque Isle counties.  The plan will follow the goals and objectives outlined in Michigan DNR’s Lake Sturgeon Rehabilitation Strategy.

The survey should take only a few minutes to complete and will provide the DNR and its partners with additional information from constituents as they move forward with this management plan. Responses will be collected until Jan. 7, 2015.

The lake sturgeon, a remnant of the dinosaur age, is considered a species of special concern by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, a threatened species in North America by the American Fisheries Society, a globally rare species by the Nature Conservancy, and a threatened species in the State of Michigan.

The lake sturgeon population in Michigan is estimated to be about one percent of its former abundance. The Huron-Erie corridor was, at one time, one of the most productive waters for lake sturgeon in North America.

For more information on lake sturgeon in Michigan, visit www.michigan.gov/sturgeon


CREDIT: Roxanne Werly – http://www.upnorthlive.com/news/story.aspx?id=1136363#.VL_kl2TF_Ws

Urban Streams Face Many Challenges but Rehabilitation Still Helpful

For Immediate Release Contact: Beth Beard
22 January 2014
301-897-8616 x215

Jim Henderson photo of urban stream City life is hard on fish, according to a new pair of review papers in this month’s Fisheries, the magazine of the American Fisheries Society. A team of scientists, largely based in the Pacific Northwest, reviewed the many stressors of urban streams, along with the effectiveness of efforts to mitigate those stressors.
“The water that flows from our cities has traces of birth control pills, radiation from medical practice, medical waste, caffeine, perfume, sunblock, deodorants, and disinfectants, all of which can alter fish physiology,” said Carl Schreck, a fish physiology professor in Oregon State University’s Department of Fisheries and Wildlife.

The fate of urban fish and their habitats also affects urban people, particularly in terms of water quality, water management, and quality of life.
“If you are concerned about the city in which you live and where your children play, you are advised to read these two articles,” said Bob Hughes of Amnis Opes Institute.
The multiple stressors affecting urban streams—channelization, pollution, highly variable flows—have been dubbed “urban stream syndrome.” Other symptoms of the urban stream syndrome are stream channels that become incised with steep banks, a decline in the variety of species found, and disturbance-tolerant and alien species becoming more common.

Fortunately, resource managers have several ways of combating the urban stream syndrome. Key techniques include replanting natural land cover, improving wastewater and stormwater management, recovering the hydrologic connection between the water and the land, and returning streams to more natural complexity. Almost all of the efforts that help improve urban fish habitat also help improve life for city residents as well; as water quality improves, fishing and swimming become safely possible, and stormwater management costs decline. However, recovery takes time and rehabilitation efforts must match the scale of the problem.

The challenge is the growing scale of those problems, with over 50% of the world’s population living in cities, and trending higher. If historical patterns and climate changes continue, urban stream syndrome will claim more and more streams, resulting in even higher repair costs unless the effects can be prevented in the first place. The authors identify several research needs, including: ways to monitor multiple stressors, a better understanding of the effects of toxic chemicals and how to screen for them, how various types of impervious surfaces affect aquatic life, how urbanization affects aquatic life in different regions with different histories and natural environments, how urban surface and groundwater are connected, what the potential future effects of climate change will bring, and how well mitigation and low-impact development practices actually work. All of this will require government entities to collaborate more to maximize funding, mitigation and rehabilitation, and monitoring opportunities, the authors state. One key is collaborative watershed management.

“For example, in Portland, Oregon, there are multiple bureaus working together on watershed issues. It’s a very integrated approach,” said co-author Alan Yeakley of the School of the Environment at Portland State University. Yeakley added, “We invite you to join us in thinking about approaches to reduce the impacts of urban areas on fish. Pristine conditions are not attainable, but urban stream rehabilitation is a worthy goal because appropriate actions improve the environments in which most of us live.”

Kathleen Maas-Hebner, senior faculty research assistant in Oregon State University’s Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, emphasized some of the social aspects of rehabilitating urban waters. She stated, “Most cities have a ready supply of citizen scientist volunteers who love working on projects and helping to monitor aquatic resources.”


# # #

Founded in 1870, the American Fisheries Society (AFS) is the world’s oldest and largest fisheries science society. The mission of AFS is to improve the conservation and sustainability of fishery resources and aquatic ecosystems by advancing fisheries and aquatic science and promoting the development of fisheries professionals. With five journals and numerous books and conferences, AFS is the leading source of fisheries science information in North America and around the world.

Imperiled Freshwater Organisms of North America Website

For Immediate Release: January 29, 2014

Contact: Beth Beard, 301-897-8616 x215, bbeard@fisheries.org

The American Fisheries Society (AFS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently renewed an agreement to host a website listing the imperiled fish, crayfish, snails, and mollusks of North America. Since 1972, the AFS Endangered Species Committee has been tracking the status of imperiled fishes and aquatic invertebrates in North America, with revised lists printed periodically in the AFS publication Fisheries. The Imperiled Freshwater Organisms of North America website (http://fl.biology.usgs.gov/afs/index.html) now provides an outlet for these lists so they can be readily accessed by scientists, stakeholders, and the public.

Screenshot of USGS AFS Imperiled Freshwater Organism website

“This is a natural collaboration because both organizations have the goal of sharing information about imperiled aquatic fauna in North America,” said Howard Jelks, chair of the AFS Endangered Species Committee and a fish biologist with the USGS in Gainesville, Florida. “Increased awareness helps benefit those resources at risk, and stakeholders now have easy access to up-to-date scientific information.”

The status lists reveal some striking statistics about the state of North America’s freshwater species. Nearly 40 percent of freshwater fish species in North American streams, rivers, and lakes are now in jeopardy, while 74 percent of freshwater snail and 48 percent of crayfish species are declining or at risk. Currently, the fish, crayfish, and snail subcommittees have provided revised status lists of at-risk taxa, and the mussel subcommittee is completing a similar revision. The renewed Memorandum of Understanding will keep this vital information available through USGS for another five years.

“In the past, I have found the faunal declines documented in the lists published in Fisheries by the AFS Endangered Species Committee disturbing, but incredibly useful in my writings,” said AFS President Bob Hughes, who is with the Amnis Opes Institute in Bend, Oregon. “Now this information is updated and easily available on a joint AFS-USGS website.”


Better Road-Stream Crossing Designs Can Help Prevent Road Wash-outs and Help Fish

For Immediate Release
February 18, 2014
Contact: Beth Beard
301-897-8616 x 215

Better Road-Stream Crossing Designs Can Help Prevent Road Wash-outs and Help Fish

Fisheries magazine February 2014 American Fisheries Society AFS coverWhen Tropical Storm Irene inundated the White River watershed in the Green Mountain National Forest in Vermont in 2011, many local roads washed out where stream culverts failed to handle the extreme water flow. The damaged and impassable roads made emergency response and recovery after the storm even more difficult. Poorly designed road culverts are also a year-round, long-term obstacle for fish passage for species such as Brook trout and endangered Atlantic salmon.

Some of the road-stream crossings that fared better during the storm were recently built using stream simulation design. The objective of stream simulation design is to create channel dimensions that are similar to the natural stream channel and have sufficient flow capacity to handle a 100-year flood. In a recent article in Fisheries, the magazine of the American Fisheries Society, scientists describe the benefits of stream simulation design for both improving the reliability of the road network and enhancing connectivity for fish and other aquatic species.

“We often hear that ‘fish-friendly’ crossings cost more money and only benefit the fish,” said lead author Nat Gillespie of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. “Our study indicates that local governments could potentially save money and improve public safety in the long run by investing in these road crossing designs that have the capacity to perform better during high flow events.”

The authors note that Federal Emergency Management Agency grants are not set up to encourage road-stream crossing improvements after disasters; often only replacement with structures similar to those that just failed are eligible for funding. The authors’ recommendations include targeting “repeat offenders” where road culverts have washed out before, identifying priority sites crucial for both fish passage and road traffic passage, improving coordination among state and federal agencies to adopt better standards, and reworking funding structures so states and towns can afford to redesign and upgrade their road-stream crossings after flood failures.

“Making improvements to culverts that can reduce flood risk, can reduce costs, and provide a host of environmental benefits just makes sense especially in response to our changing climate,” said Alison Bowden, director of freshwater conservation for The Nature Conservancy in Massachusetts.

Photo credit: Green Mountain National Forest

Flood Effects on Road-Stream Crossing Infrastructure: Economic and Ecological Benefits of Stream Simulation Designs, by Nathaniel Gillespie, Amy Unthank, Lauren Campbell, Paul Anderson, Robert Gubernick, Mark Weinhold, Daniel Cenderelli, Brian Austin, Daniel McKinley, Susan Wells, Janice Rowan, Curt Orvis, Mark Hudy, Alison Bowden, Amy Singler, Eileen Fretz, Jessica Levine, and Richard Kirn. Fisheries 39(2):62-76.



Founded in 1870, the American Fisheries Society (AFS) is the world’s oldest and largest fisheries science society. The mission of AFS is to improve the conservation and sustainability of fishery resources and aquatic ecosystems by advancing fisheries and aquatic science and promoting the development of fisheries professionals. With five journals and numerous books and conferences, AFS is the leading source of fisheries science information in North America and around the world.

Steelhead Study Earns Best Paper Award from American Fisheries Society

The American Fisheries Society has selected a paper on steelhead trout by UC Santa Cruz researcher William Satterthwaite as the best publication for 2009 in theTransactions of the American Fisheries Society.

The paper, “Steelhead life history on California’s Central Coast: Insights from a state-dependent model,” presents a mathematical model for the life histories of steelhead in small coastal streams. Steelhead are rainbow trout that migrate to the sea and return to their home streams to spawn. Unlike salmon, they can spawn repeatedly, and there is great variability in the age at which they leave freshwater and when they return to spawn.

Satterthwaite, currently an assistant researcher in applied math and statistics, worked on the study as a postdoctoral researcher in the Center for Stock Assessment Research (CSTAR) at UCSC. The coauthors of the paper include Marc Mangel, professor of applied math and statistics in the Baskin School of Engineering and director of CSTAR; UCSC graduate student Michael Beakes; Erin Collins and Robert Titus of the California Department of Fish and Game; CSTAR postdoctoral researcher David Swank; Joseph Merz of Cramer Fish Sciences and the UCSC Institute of Marine Sciences; and Susan Sogard of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Santa Cruz Laboratory.

The researchers investigated the factors that influence the life history trajectories of steelhead in Central Coast streams. Their mathematical model combined physiological and evolutionary approaches using a method (called state-dependent life history theory) developed and popularized by Mangel.

The model involves strategies that depend on age, size or condition, and recent rates of change in size or condition during specific periods in advance of the actual smolting or spawning event. By comparing the predictions of the model with empirical results from Central Coast streams, the researchers showed that the theory can explain the observed patterns and variation in the life histories and the distribution of sizes and ages at ocean migration for steelhead rearing in the upstream habitats of these streams.

“This is the first study in which such a model is fully parameterized based on data collected entirely from California steelhead populations,” Mangel said.

CSTAR is a collaboration between the NMFS Santa Cruz Laboratory and UC Santa Cruz to train students and post-graduate researchers in the quantitative tools and basic science needed in fisheries management. Mangel said the recognition of Satterthwaite’s work is an indication of the quality of the research being done at the center. He noted that two current graduate students affiliated with CSTAR were awarded fellowships in population dynamics this year from the highly competitive NOAA Fisheries/Sea Grant Fellowship Program.

Six of these fellowships, each of which provides $38,500 per year in research funding, were awarded nationally. Valerie Brown, a graduate student in applied mathematics and statistics, will investigate the robustness of the stock assessment process for salmon fisheries. Kate Richerson, a graduate student in ecology and evolutionary biology, had to turn down the NOAA/Sea Grant fellowship because she had already accepted a National Science Foundation graduate research fellowship. She will be studying the impact of the krill fishery in the Southern Ocean on populations of seabirds that feed on krill.

New Model Identifies Eastern Stream Sections Holding Wild Brook Trout

Jan 06, 2015

A new model that can accurately identify stream sections that still hold suitable habitat for wild brook trout will help fisheries managers from Maine to Georgia find and protect habitat for this fish, which is an economically, socially and ecologically important species.

Developed by researchers in Penn State’s College of Agricultural Sciences, the model is important because populations of native brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, declined precipitously throughout the fish’s native range in the eastern United States. Brook trout have been eradicated from nearly a third of their historic watersheds and their populations have declined by more than half in an additional third of watersheds in their range, primarily because of habitat changes resulting from human land-use activities.

More than most other fish in this country, wild brook trout need clean, cold water to survive, according to Tyler Wagner, adjunct associate professor of fisheries, who is assistant leader of the Pennsylvania Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit at Penn State. However, centuries of agriculture, timbering and mining resulted in siltation, sedimentation, contamination and higher stream temperatures that doomed the fish in many of their native streams.

“Wild brook trout have relatively narrow habitat requirements, but they were historically widespread in areas where cold water, access to suitable spawning substrates and instream cover were available,” he said. “However, due to habitat loss, many populations are isolated and restricted to headwater stream systems.”

The model—developed by Jefferson DeWeber, recent Ph.D. in Wildlife and Fisheries Science now a postdoctoral scholar at Oregon State University—is described this month in the Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. This brook trout model builds upon a regional river-water temperature model published by DeWeber and Wagner earlier this year in the Journal of Hydrology.

Penn State researchers conduct a survey of a small, headwaters stream in the mountains of northcentral Pennsylvania, searching for native brook trout. The model predicts with substantial accuracy which Appalachian Mountains streams from Maine …more

Using observations from more than 9,000 stream sections with brook trout data, it predicts brook trout occurrence using characteristics such as water temperature, soils, and surrounding agriculture and developed land use. Accuracy-tested by the researchers on more than 1,800 stream sections, it can predict brook trout presence in the approximately 240,000 stream reaches in the historic brook trout range.

“The fisheries research information incorporated in the model was compiled from data collected by state fisheries management agencies across the brook trout range, and we linked it to a giant GIS map of streams from Maine to Georgia,” Wagner explained.

“Our model provides a further understanding of how brook trout populations are shaped by habitat characteristics in the region and yields maps of stream-reach-scale predictions, which together can be used to support ongoing conservation and management efforts. These decision- support tools can be used to identify the extent of potentially suitable habitat, estimate historic habitat losses and prioritize conservation efforts by selecting suitable stream reaches for a given action.”

CREDIT: http://phys.org/news/2015-01-eastern-stream-sections-wild-brook.html

Press: Nation’s Top Scientists Urge Obama Administration to Stop Old-Growth Logging and Save the Tongass Rainforest

ASHLAND, Ore., Jan. 20, 2015 /PRNewswire/ — Seven of the nation’s top scientific societies have joined over 200 distinguished climate and natural resource scientists to urge the Obama Administration to speed up its transition out of old-growth logging on the Tongass National Forest in southeast Alaska.

Photo – photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20150119/169876
Photo – photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20150119/169877

USDA Secretary Tom Vilsack announced in July 2013 that a transition out of old-growth logging and into logging second growth (forests originally logged in the 1950s that have since reforested) would commence over time. The Forest Service is amending the Tongass National Forest Land Management Plan, with a draft due this August. Unfortunately, the agency continues to support controversial old-growth sales at levels not seen since the early 1990s, despite independent analyses showing second growth will soon be available to replace old growth timber.

The scientific societies calling for an end to old-growth logging on the Tongass National Forest (the only national forest still clearcutting old growth) include the American Fisheries Society, American Ornithologists Union, American Society of Mammalogists, Ecological Society of America, Pacific Seabird Group, Society for Conservation Biology, and The Wildlife Society.

According to Dominick A. DellaSala, Chief Scientist of Geos Institute, “Unprecedented scientific support for Tongass Rainforest protections is a signal to President Obama that there is no time to waste in ending old growth logging, which would be a defining moment for his climate and environmental legacies.”

Grant Hilderbrand, President of the Alaska Chapter of the Wildlife Society, added, “Protecting old-growth forests on the Tongass is key to maintaining the productivity and resilience of the extraordinary fish and wildlife that have otherwise declined throughout their southern ranges in North America.”

The Tongass is a national repository for atmospheric carbon. Its large trees, productive soils, and dense foliage store at least ten times more carbon than any other national forest. When rainforests are logged, most of the stored carbon is released as carbon dioxide pollution, contributing to global warming in Alaska and worldwide. Alaska has been hit the hardest by climate changes, including sharp reductions in snow-cover, shorter river- and lake-ice seasons, melting glaciers, sea-ice and permafrost retreat, increased depth of summer thaw, die-back of Alaska yellow cedar, and displacement of native Alaskan villages.

President Obama has made climate change remediation his signature environmental agenda. However, his administration has yet to link forest protections with climate security.

“We are calling on President Obama to keep carbon in the trees, much like we need to keep coal in the ground. Both are essential to slowing runaway climate change in Alaska and throughout the world for future generations,” said Doug Parsons, North America Policy Director for the Society for Conservation Biology.

“Quickly transitioning the Tongass rainforest out of clearcutting old-growth forests would bring certainty to the timber industry and legacy rainforest benefits to the American people,” added DellaSala.

Links to 3 scientist letters:




Link to independent analysis of second growth:


Dominick A. DellaSala, Ph.D., President and Chief Scientist
Geos Institute
541.482.4459 x302; 541.621.7223 (cell)

SOURCE Geos Institute


Sockeye salmon “endangered species success story”

A new study indicates a biological Hail Mary employed to save Idaho’s critically imperiled sockeye salmon may have saved the species from extinction, and it shows promise the long-distance swimmers may one day recover.

Paul Kline, assistant chief of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Fisheries Bureau, and Thomas Flagg, a supervisory fisheries biologist for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, published the study in Fisheries, a journal published by the American Fisheries Society.

The two scientists say data indicates the offspring of sockeye salmon that spawn naturally in Redfish Lake return from the ocean at a rate more than triple the return rate of sockeye raised in hatcheries.

That finding alone isn’t revolutionary. What makes it significant is that sockeye spawning in the wild and producing those better-returning fish are the product of hatcheries. They’re part of the state’s effort to use artificial production to not only stave off extinction but also seed Redfish Lake and other Sawtooth Valley lakes with spawners.

“This is a real American endangered species success story,” said Will Stelle, administrator of NOAA Fisheries’ West Coast Region. “With only a handful of remaining fish, biologists brought the best genetic science to bear and the region lent its lasting support. Now there is real potential that this species will be self-sustaining again. The sockeye didn’t give up hope and neither did we.”

Snake River sockeye salmon were listed as endangered in 1991 following several years of dismal returns. No sockeye returned to the basin in some years. In others, only a few adults made the 900-mile journey from the Pacific Ocean, up the Columbia, Snake and Salmon rivers. The most famous of what could have been the last of the species was Lonesome Larry, the single sockeye that returned to the basin in 1992.

In response, Idaho, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, federal fisheries officials and the Bonneville Power Administration began a captive breeding program — the equivalent of capturing wild animals, breeding them in zoos and then releasing the offspring into the wild.

For more than 20 years, Idaho and its partners have been doing just that. It started by capturing the few wild adult sockeye remaining and breeding them in hatcheries. They also captured wild smolts and raised them in hatcheries.

Some of the offspring of the initial captures were released to swim to the ocean, mature and eventually return. Others were held in hatcheries for their entire life cycles.

Over time, the program began producing and releasing more and more smolts, and allowed an increasing number of the returning adults to spawn in the wild.

When they compared the smolt-to-adult return rates of naturally produced fish versus those born in hatcheries, officials found the natural fish were more fit.

Scientific literature indicated bringing the fish into hatcheries would have some negative effects on the fitness of their offspring. Scientists theorized it would take many generations of fish spawning in the wild before such a difference would show up. Instead, the scientists documented it in just a few generations.

To be sure, sockeye remain in danger of going extinct and recovery is likely still a distant dream. But the results indicate it might not be as impossible as many had feared.

“We hoped we could get returns equivalent to what you’d expect to see from a hatchery,” said Flagg, manager of the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries’ Science Center’s Manchester Research Station. “We’ve seen the population respond even better than that, which bodes well for the idea that the lakes can produce the juveniles you’d want to see to get to recovery.”

That’s good news for the prospects of recovering the species and welcomed not only by scientists and anglers but also the people who directed money to the program.

“I think it’s one of the most successful projects the council has funded,” said Bill Booth, one of Idaho’s representatives on the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. “Really, Idaho Fish and Game deserves the credit for this. The work they have done over time has been from a sound scientific approach in the very beginning to really achieve a spectacular outcome.”

CREDIT: By ERIC BARKER/Lewiston Tribune


Endangered species success: Idaho salmon regaining fitness advantage

Endangered Snake River sockeye salmon are regaining the fitness of their wild ancestors, with naturally spawned juvenile sockeye migrating to the ocean and returning as adults at a much higher rate than others released from hatcheries, according to a newly published analysis. The analysis indicates that the program to save the species has succeeded and is now shifting to rebuilding populations in the wild.

Biologists believe the increased return rate of sockeye spawned naturally by hatchery-produced parents is high enough for the species to eventually sustain itself in the wild again.

“This is a real American endangered species success story,” said Will Stelle, Administrator of NOAA Fisheries’ West Coast Region. “With only a handful of remaining fish, biologists brought the best genetic science to bear and the region lent its lasting support. Now there is real potential that this species will be self-sustaining again. The sockeye didn’t give up hope and neither did we.”

Biologists Paul Kline of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Thomas Flagg of NOAA Fisheries’ Northwest Fisheries Science Center report the results in the November issue of Fisheries, the magazine of the American Fisheries Society.

These findings demonstrate that the program to save Snake River sockeye can indeed reverse the so-called “extinction vortex,” where too few individuals remain for the species to sustain itself. Some thought that Snake River sockeye had entered that vortex in the 1990s, highlighted in 1992 when the sole returning male Redfish Lake sockeye, known as “Lonesome Larry” captured national attention.

NOAA Fisheries earlier this year released a proposed recovery plan for Snake River sockeye, which calls for an average of 1,000 naturally spawned sockeye returning to Redfish Lake each year, with similar targets for other lakes in Idaho’s Sawtooth Valley. About 460 naturally spawned sockeye returned to Redfish Lake this year – the most since the program began – out of an overall record return of about 1,600.

The article in Fisheries recounts the 20-year history of the scientific program to save the Snake River sockeye. The program began with 16 remaining adult sockeye – 11 males and five females – taken into captivity from 1991 to 1998. Through advanced aquaculture techniques, the program has retained about 95 percent of the species’ remaining genetic variability, while boosting surviving offspring about 2,000 percent beyond what could be expected in the wild.

Without such advances, the scientists write, “extinction would have been all but certain.”

The program funded by the Bonneville Power Administration has released more than 3.8 million sockeye eggs and fish into lakes and streams in the Sawtooth Valley, and tracks the fish that return from the ocean. Hatchery fish returning as adults have also begun spawning again in Redfish Lake, increasingly producing naturally spawned offspring that are now also returning.

A new analysis of those returns shows that the naturally spawned sockeye are returning at rates up to three times higher than those released from hatcheries as smolts, and more than 10 times greater than those released as even younger pre-smolts.

The higher returns indicate the naturally spawned fish are regaining the fitness the species needs to better survive their 900-mile migration to the ocean, their years at sea, and the return trip to Redfish Lake. A salmon population must produce at least one returning offspring per adult to sustain itself.

Naturally spawned sockeye have returned at more than twice that rate in some years, indicating that under the right conditions they can not only sustain the species but add to it.

This image shows the eggs of Snake River sockeye salmon, the subject of an intense hatchery program to save the species.

(Photo Credit: NOAA Fisheries)

The results also suggest that hatchery-produced sockeye may regain the fitness advantages they need to sustain their species in the wild much faster than had been previously estimated, the scientists reported. Biologists caution that the current results span only three years so far, but indicate that fitness – and, in turn, survival – can improve in as little as only one generation in the wild.

“We hoped we could get returns equivalent to what you’d expect to see from a hatchery,” said Flagg, manager of the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries’ Science Center’s Manchester Research Station. “We’ve seen the population respond even better than that, which bodes well for the idea that the lakes can produce the juveniles you’d want to see to get to recovery.”

Endangered sockeye salmon swim over spawning grounds in Redfish Lake, Idaho. The naturally spawned offspring of the fish are returning at a high enough rate to rebuild the species, a new analysis shows.

(Photo Credit: Idaho Department of Fish and Game)